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Human being in his socializition history and educational period, always have tried to establish a good contacts for to share or change their knowledge, an experiences with whom anyone established easily communicate. This is a kind of feeding way of his life. It is an obsulate necessity for mentally, physically and emitionally development of humanbeings.
As long as people have been able to write -or even draw pictures-
they have tried to use those skills to send messages to other people. The invention of printing and, in 20th Century, broadcasting, have enabled humanbeing to develop new methods of communicating with people who are not face-to-face with eachother (Dodds, 1983, p. 1). In our contemporary world this necessity is already heavily eliminated by developing mass media technology. On those days all people are in contact one or two of mass media in their all day which they are very close to his way of life or his looking angle to the world or life. It is no doubt that mass media is very close and important thing in our daily life, for example, think the television or broadcastingvia satellite, as if, they are one of the our family member
These developed techniques have also made it possible to communicate with very large numbers of people through a single act of writing or broadcasting -very many more people than a teacher, or lecturer, could teach in a lesson or a lecture. (Dodds, 1983, p. 2).
Communication technologies have a manipulative power and effect on the field of education in general. These technologies have been increasingly used in education and training for many years to meet
different needs. This situation, increasingly use of technologies in education and training, have brought up some new disciplines, or study fields, into education field. Distance education is one of the newest forms of education which basically depends on these communication and information technologies . As a new and modern approach to deliver instruction, distance education has been increasingly used by many corporations and organizations for both formal and non-formal educational settings in the United States and all around the world.
It has been realized by the corporations, institutions, colleges and universities that, when properly and timely used, distance education is one of the most effective, economical, and productive ways of delivering instruction. This fact caused them to employ distance education to deliver training and education to their personnel, clients and students in a cost-effective way at a high quality. That is one of the reasons that distance education, has been receiving more attention recently, especially during the late 1980 and 1990. The reason for such a trend is clear: the challenge of delivering more training to more people on more subjects with higher impact and effectiveness, and in a much more effective way can be met efficiently through distance education methods and techniques. While a new century is approaching, it seems that distance education is going to be one of the most widely used mode of delivering instruction in almost all areas, but especially in corporate training and education.
A recent study reports that corporations and organizations which have successfully implemented distance learning systems list a range of benefits for their corporations. Among these benefits, the most frequently cited are the following (Akyüreko?lu, 1995, p. 81).
Attempts have been made since the 1920’s to use print and broadcasting in an organised way to teach people at a distance At first, these media were used separately for education. Recently, however, many projects have setout to combine print and broadcasting for educational purposes. And there has been growing that occasional meetings between students and tutors help to make it easier to learn from printed or broadcast materials. Several different expressions are used to describe these various activities.
The purpose of this chapter is to give a place terminology and definations of the distance education concept from point of scaning literature and various aspects of distance education view which argeued by authors or distance educators, before giving our distance education/learning defination. The defination will develope here is used as an instrument to elimminate from the discussion forms of education which are different although they may have some similarities with each other The methodology used is here, based on of acknowledged experts in the field.
Distance education or open learning is one of the important necessity for to meet the developed or developing countries educational problems. In some socities, education has a very big problems for the reason finance, quality teaching team, physical capacities and so on. Distance education tries to solve these problems by using mass media to meet educational demand for its society within its own education method since early 1800‘s. which its history is mentioned in the other chapter with as possible as detaily.
Distance education can be defined or called with many the other concepts such as wallness education, open learning, open teaching, non-traditional education, distance learning, distance teaching, correspondence education, independent study, home study, distance teaching at a distance, extention study, external study, external learning, flexible education, flexible learning, life long education, life long learning, contract learning, experiential learning, directed private study, drop-in learning, independent learning, individualized learning, resource-based learning, self-access learning, self-study, supported self-study or continuning education ect in the literature defined by different authors. In this chapter distance education will named in the name any form of the concept which metioned up such as open learning or distance learning or distance education etc. Whatever ?t calls that in this chapter all of it will use in the meaning of distance education.
This concept is pleaced detaily in the Keegan’s book is named as Foundation of Distance Education. Here will summarize his chapter dealing with concept and defination of the distance education as can we do. We will use distance education as being a generic term of the field of education, as he said. Whatever distance education calls, mentioned above and on discussions in the literature.
It may be describe thus: ‘distance education’ is a generic term that includes the range of teaching/learning strategies referred to as correspondence education or correspondence study at furter education level in the United Kingdom; as home study at furter education and independent study at higher educational in the United States; as external studies in Australia; and as a distance teaching or teaching at a distance in the United Kingdom by the Open University. In French it is referred to as Tele-enseignement; Fernstudium/Fernunterricht in German; educacion a distanica in Spanish and teleducacao in Portuguese. This description list the major terms used by distance education institutions in the Enlish-speaking world and gives parallel terms for the major European languages. Distance education subsumes a number of existing terms but not all are synonymous. (Keegan, 1990, p. 28-29).
These terms have a long history in the education of children and adult at a distance. They still have their supporters who claim that nearly all distance education is still organized throught the post and that both the public and prospective students recognize the terms. ‘Correspondence education’ is defined in the UNESCO volume Terminology of Adult Education as:
Education conducted by postal services without face- to-face between teacher and learner. Teaching is done by written or tape-recorded materials through written or taped exercises to the teacher, who corrects them and returns them to the learner with criticisms and advice (Quoted from UNESCO, 1979; by Keegan, 1990, p. 29)
The main problem with the term correspondence education is that it cannot encompass the didactic potential of this form of education in 1980s and beyond: print, audio, video and computer based possibilities must be reflected by the terminology chosen. Another problem is that critics of the term tend to associate ‘correspondence education and ‘correspondence study’ with the some of the less successful aspects of distance education in the past and to feel that these terms contribute to the still-questioned status of study at a distance in many countries
Even when distance education is print-based the term ‘correspondence education’ is inadequate to describe courses by newspaper or systems with no postal component. A term is, however, need to designate the postal subgroup of the print-based forms of distance education in which student contact is not encourged. It seems suitable to reserve the term ‘correspondence education’ for this purposes. (Keegan, 1990, p. 30)
History of the distance education terminology based the terms which are can be listed as home study, independent study, external study and distance teachin at a distance etc. Home study concept is explained in Keegan’s study as:
Communication theory experts tells us that word grow tired and if they do, then ‘correspondence study’ is a tired word. It is significant that as early as 1926 when the directors of the correspondence schools of the United states came together to form an association, the title chosen was the National Home Study Council and not the National Correspondence Study Council. ‘Home Study’, however, has little claim to being an overall term as it is used mainly in the United States and is there confined to furter education (technical and vocationally oriented instituttions) and not higher education (universities and university-oriented colleges). In addition, the distance student may not, in fact, study at home or may study in part at home and in part at other centres (Keegan, 1990, p. 30).
A related concept is independent study. the fact that the student is separated from the teacher place great emphasis on the former’s ability to study on his own initative. Independent study is defined as fallows:
Independent study, consists of various forms of teaching or learning arragements in which teachers and learners carry out their essential task and responsibilities apart from one another, communicating in a variety of ways for the purpose of freeing internal learners from inappropriate class pacing or patterns, of providing external learners with opportunities to continue learning in their own environments, and of developing in all learners the capacity to carry on self-directed learning, by C. Wedemeyer in his study, named as independent Study, in 1971.
Wedemeyer’s defination still involves an element of communication between teacher and learner at some point in the process. As such it is related to concept of distance education which stress the independent self-pacing nature of the student’s learning. It is not enough to say that independent study is learning on one’s own without establish the context within which a student exercises his or her independence. Total independence takes one into areas covered by, for example teach-yourself books and educational broadcasting in which the element of two-way communications essential in distance teaching is absent (Rumble and Harry, 1982, p. 13).
Let’s turn to the Kegan’s defination on external study concept in the same book. It is given a place of External Study concept as: External studies is the term most widely used in Australia. It describes well the ethos of distance education as found in Australian universities and colleges of advenced education; a form of education that is ‘external to’ but not ‘separated from the faculty staff of the institution. The same staff have two group students, one on-campus, on the other external, and they prepare both groups for the same examination and awards. However, ‘external studies’ can have little claim to general acceptance because of its limitation to Australia and because of possible confusion with programmes structured differently such as American external degree (Keegan, 1990, p. 30)
On the same page Keegan continues to describe of the distance teaching or teaching at a distance by quoting from Moore as follows.
These two terms have been used as a characteristic of this form of education for over a decade. All these teaching methods in which, because of physical separation of learners and teachers, the interactive (stimulation,, explanation, questioning, guidance) as well as the preactive phase of teaching (selecting, objectives, planning curriculum and instructional stratigies), is conducted through print, mechanical or electronic devices (Quoted from Moore 1973, p. 669 by Keegan, 1990p. 30).
Keegan points out that this term does not enough to tell or emphase of the term of distance education. He indicates his thinkings dealt with the Teaching at a Distance as follows: The term has grown greatly in popularity since the inception of the Open University (UK) which used it for its journal, Teaching at distance. It is, nevertlles, inadequate for the field of education we want to define. Just as ‘distance learning’ would be too student-based as an overall term and would tend to ignore the role of the institution, so ‘distance teaching’ is too teacher-oriented and places all the emphasis on the institution (Keegan, 1990, p. 30).
Distance educaton is very important development for our century by giving education to the people who are living different geography, in different age and different learning capacity. This people who have lost their educating chance for many reasons such as age, illness, war, some family retionships, economic and geographical problems and so on.
Distance education provides educational opportunity to its target by preparing some harmonical combining educational components such as printed course materials, creating face to face interaction medium for academic counselling and student guiding, using satellite, internet, video or teleconferences, broadcasting radio and television courses and the other student support services like library, online communication and computer assisted instruction so on.
As well as known, ideally, the learners and teachers of the distance education systems or institutions are separate from eachother. As being one of the member of the distance education institution, learners are desire to be in good contacts with their instution due to course. This basic necessity has a very important value for the learners and distance education institutions. And also, it is very important to establish beneficially communication channels for a good contacts with its learners for the institutions beside giving quality education to them. In this point, distance education institutions try to establish a good contact with its learners.
Nowadays our century’s developments of on communication technology and developments in electrical world gives a chance to the distance education systems or institutions to establish better com munication ways than before they did. 21st Century has bright future for the communication and electronic communication technology developments. Jetkins explains our age in the name of open or distance learning as placed belove:
The age of information technology has, paradoxically, seen renewed emphasis on face,to-face and interpersonal contact as a component of good open and distance learning -the recognition that while most people can do most their learning at a distance, learners generally do better with a rounded learning support system which includes some personal contact. Increasingly, distance learning systems are designed to accommodate this kind of interaction, both incorprated within courses and associated with learning environment with guidance on course selection, through orientation to self-study and well-planned support, disadvantaged adults with a low level of basic education can study groups listening to the radio, with trained group leaders. The importance of interpersonal contact is manifest in the appearance in many contexts of open learning or distance education study centers -places where individuals can consults reference material and other resources. Secondly, new information and communications technology applications in education have given an immense boost to open and distance learning all over the world. Their immediate attraction lies in their ability to make more learning avilable at the increasing interactivity in the absence of a teacher, through for example multimedia applications and electronic communication. But such learning is available only to minority of adults, those who have easy access to computers and know how to use them (Jetkins, 1997, p. 73).
When the literature scanned, it will be seen that distance education is defined with many different explanation in different sources by different authors. In those differentation, some aspects or dimensions of the distance education have taken first plan or primarly elected by the authors or definators. According to them that aspects or dimentions of distance education has to emphasize or it is so important for the system.
It is very clear that we could not bring a new things in definition studies. In the other words; the best thing is in the defination studies; bring them together and observe that why and how the term is defined and by whom or for what primaryly pointed out. As a briefly before giving our defination here, we will try to carry on to some important definations of the distance education from different and well known authors or sources. In this meaning, of course it should khown well that some sources in the literature will be old or not so new. Apart this situtation, that we have to benefit from some limited sources. It looks as an another problem in defination studies.
Distance education definations starting from the discussions of the concepts which are using the same meaning replace of each other For example; correspondence education is used replace of the distance education such a long time in the literature.
In the United States began about a century ago with correspondence education. After nearly half acentury of practice a group of mostly American and Canadian correspondence educators, most but not all from uniersity extension division, met in Vancouver, Canada, in 1938 to form an organization which they called International Council for Correspondence Education (ICCE) Conferences of these correspondence educators were held about every four years, and it was at the conference in Warrenton, Virginia, in 1972 that the use of the term ‘distance education’ in English, and the concept of distance as a dimension of teaching and learning, was introduced. The use of the term was proposed after a search for a name that would describe not only correspondence instruction, but whole family of teaching-learning arrangements that had emerged in the 1960’s.
These arrangements had a common charecteristic that the learner and teacher were normally separated, geographically and often in time, and the communication that normally in education occured by word of mouth in a classroom was carried by correspondence, and, increasingly, by electronic media. These media came to include not only radio and television broadcasting, but audio and video recording, and teleconferencing through computer modems, telephone, satellite and microwave systems (Moore, 1990, p. xiv).
In 1967 G. Dohmen’s definition from the Germany, director of the German Distance education Institute (DIFF) at Tübingen, is;
Distance education (Fernstudium) is systematically organised form of self-study in which student counselling, the presentation of learning material and the securing and supervising of student’ success is carried out by a team of teachers, each of whom has responsibilities. It is made possible at a distance by means of media which can cover long distances. The opposite of distance education is ‘direct education’ or ‘face-to-face’ education’ a type of education that takes a place with direct contact between lectures and studens. (Quoted from Dohmen, 1967, by Keegan, 1990, p. 36).
According to Keegan; from this early formulation these are hihglighted: The organization of self study by an institution, use of media and, differences from direct contact between lectures and students
On the basis of the research undertaken to date, a numbers of authors -most notably Baath, Keegan, Peters, and Holmberg- have attempted to define what is meant by distance education, and thereby provide a context for furteher study. Their definitions heva built on variying practices and they reflect different backgrounds of the individual concerned (Tight, 1988, p. 56). Here it will discuss mostly quoted definitions by Holmberg, Peters and Keegan.
In 1973 again from Germany, Otto Peters’ definition is placed in the literature as show belove:
Distance teaching/education is a method of imparting knowledge, skills and attitudes which is rationalised by the application of division of labor and organizational principles as well as by the extensive use of technical media, especially for the purpose of reproducing high quality teaching material which makes it possible to instruct the great numbers of students at the same time whereever they live. It is an industrialised form of teaching and leaning (Quoted from Peters 1973, by Keegan, 1990, p. 37).
According to Keegan; characteristics of Peters’ position are: The use of technical media, the mass education of students at a distance; and the industralization of the teaching process.
In 1977 without motification Michael Moore’s definition 1973 , distance education defined is:
Distance teaching may be defined as the family of instructional methods in which the teaching behaviours are executed apart from the learning behaviours, including those that in a contiguous situation would be perfomed in the learner’s presence, so that communication between the teacher and learner must be facilitated by print, electronic, mechanical or other devices (Quoted from Moore 1973 , by Keegan, 1990, p. 37).
According to Keegan; cenral points of the Moore’s definition is: The separation of teacher and learner; and the use of technical media.
As well as known the term ‘distance education is defined by Holmberg Borje in 1977, which is pleaced belove:
The term ‘distance education’ covers the various form of study at all level which are not under the continuous, immediate supervision of tutors present with their students in lecture rooms or on the same premises, but which,nevertless, benefit from the planning, guidance and tution of a tutorial organization (EDRS, 1990, p.1-2).
Holmberg’s definition contains two elements which can be considered as: The separation of teacher and learner, and the planning of an educational organization. Its main charecteristic is that on non-contiguous, i.e. mediated communication. Distance study denotes the activity of the students, distance teaching that of the tutorial organization. There are evidently two chief partners in the teaching process, i.e. the student and the distance teaching organization with its tutors, counsellors and administrators. The organization means here can be school, a university, an assocation or an educational private company.
Perry and Rumble are giving their brief explanation on what is distance education?
For education to occur, there must be someone who needs educating and someone to do educating. This implies that there is both a learner and a teacher, and some form of two way communication between them. The teacher must have her, and the teacher must then provide some feedback to the learner on what the latter he said or written. the learner, in order to be educated, must acquire three things: knowledge, skills and understanding. Learners must know something (knowledge), they must know how to use that knowledge (skill) and they must know why thel are using it and what its value is in the widest possible context (understanding).
Perry and Rumble are going on their explanations as:
In this context of education, distance education means that the learner and the teacher are not face-to-face. Thus two way communication must take place despite the fact that they are not in the same room together. This two-way communication can be established using any medium that is available such as; postal or e-mailing, telephone, fax ,radio, television, computer, modems linkage TV or computers, interactive videodiscs etc. both of side of teaching or learning process.(Perry and Rumble, 1987, p.1)
Antonhy Kaye is agree with Keegan’s 1986 definition on distance education concept which is:
Distance education in contrast to traditional classroom or campus-based education, is characterised by a clear separation in space and time of the majority of teaching and learning activities. Teaching is to a large degree mediated through various technologies (print, audio, video, broadcasting, computers, etc.), and learning generally takes a place on an individual basis through supported independent study in the student’s home, or work place. the quality of the teaching materials andthe level and wariety support for independent study depends on the nature and resourses of the institution or organisation responsible for a given programme, and the available communication infrastructure (Kaye, 1989, p. 6-7).
As shown above, there are many differet definition of distance education, but Kevin Smith think in his article which is titled as ”Distance Education: Touching With Technology”, to be agreed distance education definition includes the separation of teacher and learner, the involvement of an educational organization, the use of media and the provision of two way communication between teacher and the learner.
Of all the characteristics, the emphasis on ‘two way communication’ is the most central for it is the interactive nature of the media on which his focusing. tnis definition of distance education can be fleshed out a little if we consider what is necessary fon an effective system (Smith, 1990, p. 4).
As distance education evolved, so have the roles of students, teacher and institution in the teaching system. As noted by Sir John Daniel from Keegan that as recently as till 1980s, distance education was defining in terms of the correspondence tradition. According to the increasing remote-classroom approach, Moore’s earlier and simplier defination changed to the inclusive: distance education is the family of instructional methods in which the teaching behaviours are executed from the learning behaviours. (Daniel, 1996, p. 56) A book is published and titled as Open Learning in Transition, for the 25th Anniversary Founding of the National Extension College (NEC), in 1988. Additionally, it is dedicated to the memory of Michael Young and Brian
Jackson whose their energy and commitment to second-chance education which is resulted founding of NEC twenty five years ago.
In that, book distance education is defined by J. Daniel as being educational openless should give a possibility of the study to people previously excluded and be called open learning. Learner can also have either without the other. Daniel focused on endeavours that are both open learning and distance education.
Distance education means simply forms of instruction that rely heavily on ways of communicating other than meeting face-to-face. These forms of instruction can be called open learning if they make education accessible to more people (Daniel, 1988, p.127).
Sharifah Alwiah Alsagoff is agree of Daniel and his friends definition in his article which is named as; “Training Needs in the Use of Media For Distance Education in Malaysia”. He defines that distance education is an educational approach in which the learner is separated from institution by time and/or space. Communication in distance education is non-contiguous but interactive. Courses involve various media rather than face-to-face teaching (Alsagoff, 1990, p. 155).
Anna Stahmer and friends’ give their definition on their article which is titled as “Development in Telecommunication Technology For Distance Education with Reference to Developing Countries”. Distance education can be a part of open learning system which offers open access to courses, or it can be part of strict and formal degree programme. We are concered with the educational process in which a significiant porportion of learning and teaching happens while learners teachers are removed from eachother in space and time. The learner can study at home, at the place of work, or at a ‘host university’ campus, in lerning centers or through a combination of such arragements (Stahmer et al. 1990, p. 96).
In whichever, media-based education, like print-based, computer-based or broadcasting-based etc. institution or education systems, the main elements of the separation teacher and learner is given a place all these well known definitions. It should not forget that there is a relationship between structure of the learning materials and the linking of these learning materials for effectively using by studends depends on differentation of the educational organization and its media planning.
The most notable charecteristic of distance education is that communication between learners and teachers is through print, writing or by electronic media such as broadcasts, recorddings narrowcasts by cable, satellite, ITFS, and fiber tranmission, interactive telecommunication by computer, audio and video teleconfereces or, as is increasingly common, combinations of these media.
A second significiant charecteristic of distance education arises from the first. It consists of a new approach to instraction, with the process of teaching being broken into its consiquent parts. Some or all of these are prepared away from learner, and communicated to the learner through the communication technology, with the possibility of interaction between learner and an instructor also being through communication technology. In distance education, courses are usually design for distribution to audience that are larger, and over geographic areas that are wider than conventional educaion. Although course materials are produced more centrally, local instructors help learners make individual sense of, and develop critical responses to them (Moore, 1989, p. 1).
So that we can summarize and synthesise these definitions according to the role and effectivly influence of the educational organization, separating teacher and learners dealt with the using media or faced technological medium, way of established communication type; one way or two way ect, privatization and the industrialization of the education.
Distance education defines as a type of education that takes place when a teacher and student(s) are separated by physical distance and technology (i.e. voice, video, data and print). These type of programs can provide adults with a second change at a college education, reach those disadvantaged by limited time. Distance or physical disability, and update knowledge base of workers at their places of employment (Fesibility Analysis......Final Report, 1997, 2-3).
On a global scale, educators are heralding the advent of computer-based technology as the great equalizer that will provide instant education in developing countries. As scholar begin to see the impact that these new electronic media are having on the school, the family and the workplace, they are drawn to a more thorough exemination of the economic, political, and social effects that technologies are having on ways of thinking on cultural values (McIsaac, 1993, p. 219).
Globalism and obligation to the life style and scientifical integration of global changing mentioned in United Nations University’s Second Medium-Term Perspective for 1990-95 Period with the global responsibilities especially from point of developing countries wiev. (Global Change....., 1989, p. 3. The powerful forces now operating at the global level can only be understood and managed through collabrative effort and incorporating perspectives of diverse cultures and religions. It is necessary torecognize that this implies the need for a much higher level awareness of the far-reaching effects of our actions. Individuals, communities andnations must increasly take into account the fact that their actions may have impacts far beyond their immediate sphere of concern or influence and must also take responsibility for the cosequence.
This in turn requires people to be fully involved in the decisions and strategies that are needed to deal with global changes resultings from these actions. Such participation is so important as Turkey, for the young, particularly in developing countries where a majority of the population is under 25 years old, and for women, whose role in providing for basic needs in the family and community is a significiant factor in the development process
McIsaac gives a place to global culture concept depending Featherstone’ opinion. In commenting upon the globalization of cultures, scholars such as Featherstone (1990), -he indicates in his study which titled as “Global Culture”- agreed that the cultures no longer represent groups of individual nation-states, but rather subgroups of people worldwide who share common jobs, vocabulary, experiences, and traditions.
These people come from many economic, social and religions backgrounds and share, in the postmodernist tradition, a diversity, variety, and richness of customs and distinctive forms of social life. the belief, values, traditions, and symbols reflected in various segments of our postmodern, interdependent world cross national lines. Subcultures share common traditions, symbols, and languag, and may rely on telecommunication and computerized networks of information. the present postindustrial society emphasizes the instant availability of information through mass media, the disappearance of small competing national sectors, and a forging of common interests using telecommunication networks and computerized information resources for the perceived economic benefit of the community.
Educators working with distance-learning technologies such as computer and telecommunication networks are called on to design curricula, frequently for ethnically diverse populations. Distance education in which the instructor and learner are at a distance from each other, is particulary well suited for the use of computers and global information networks. How can educators utilize these telecommunication systems and computerized networks to promote rather than stifle cultural diversity? How can the technology of education be made to work for rather than against the preservation of multiple cultural identities? As an educational tool, the computer communicates such values as the significance of knowledge, the importance of the individual as problem solver, and the supremacy of the logic. the computer offers an excellent example of technology that assumes a very specific rationale for knowing.
Distance education can be defined as a teaching and learning assited by telecommunications. In this system, learning and teaching facilities are delivered from one place to one or more other places by telecommunication technologies and mail system. This definition of distance education takes us to global distance education. In other meaning this is new and this chapter’s summary defination on distance education. Distance education systems can be have been succesflly implemented the nation level in several countries. Thus, it is possible that distance education can be delivered internationally using globally interconnected telecommunication technologies, such as satellite, fiber optics, dr plain old telephone services (??man, 1995, p. 2).
In our century, internet and teleconference systems are using very widespreadly as being one of student support services by distance education institutions and by its learner. Including written, visual and audio elements, internet is favourable me dium for the learners. And also, teleconference system is real ize to bring together teacher and learner who are in different place. It is possible to attend to the teleconference by internet by adding sound and visual card in to their computer at home
At the beginning establishing cost is quite expensive of the internet. But, when we think publishing and distributing cost of printed materials, preparing and broadcasting cost of television and radio course production materials and cost of face to face counselling organization, internet is geting a cheaper cost than the other materials produced for the course. It takes us to virtual classroom which almost every teaching course materials present to learners at internet medium as soon as, like end of by 2000 years.
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